Literature references and annotations by Dick Grune, email@example.com.
Last update: Mon Sep 14 13:33:32 2009.
These references and annotations were originally intended
for personal use and are presented here only in the hope
that they may be useful to others.
There is no claim to completeness or even correctness.
Each annotation represents my understanding of the text
at the moment I wrote the annotation.
No guarantees given; comments and content criticism welcome.
ISDN and Broadband ISDN,
Macmillan Publ. Comp.,
A detailed book, written clearly.
Reduced Instruction Set Computers,
IEEE Computer Science Press,
Collection of about 30 papers, with intro.
Arthur H. Veen,
Dataflow machine architecture,
Explains dataflow and its processors.
Shows the difficulties in mapping programming constructs onto data graphs.
Gives a survey of existing machines and examines the Manchester Dataflow
Machine in detail.
The latter is a tagged-token pipelined machine with between 2 and 100
The paper is not uncritical of the problems that beset dataflow computing.
Philip C. Treleaven,
David R. Brownbridge,
Richard P. Hopkins,
Data-driven and demand-driven computer architecture,
Treats dataflow mainly as reduction.
On Holy Wars and a plea for peace,
Bit, byte and word order are a problem, since different decisions are
taken in different circumstances; the inconsistent hardware properties
show up in software, especially in data transmission.
This paper describes the situation amusingly but quite vehemently in
terms of Gulliver's Travels.
There are two possible consistent orders.
One starts with the Least Significant Bit/Byte (LSB), the other with
the Most Significant Bit/Byte (MSB).
Proponents of the first are called Little-Endians or Lilliputians and
the second Big-Endians or Blefuscuians.
The terms have stuck.
The effects of LSB vs. MSB show up in communication between machines,
but also inside machines, for example in the effects of shifts from one
register to another, and in overlaying one data structure on top of
Examples of Big-Endians are the IBM360 and the M68000.
The PDP11 and the VAX are Little-Endians, most of the time.
But the author points out inconsistencies in all of them.
The problems can partly be remedied cosmetically by using the "Chinese
Notation", in which bytes are presented in top-to-bottom order on paper.
The situation is even worse in transmission orders, as defined by the
pertinent protocols, resulting in the need for routines like
In the end the author proposed to toss a coin for the decision.
[But today the problem is "solved" by hiding it behind interfaces.]
[I think the problems is much deeper than is hinted at here.
Even in a two-volume book set, placed on a book shelf, each volume
holding 1000 pages, the pages are in the order 1000 - 1, 2000 - 1001
from left to right.]