The Korean Verb — Structured and Complete
describes and explains in detail the primary building block of every
Korean phrase or sentence — the verb form at the end of the sentence.
This important and often complicated form ties together the other words in the
sentence into a meaningful unit.
The full coverage of the Korean verb form is based on three novel features:
The three-stems method.
This method associates three verb stems with a verb.
Each stem can then just be glued to any matching ending in the list of
endings described below.
This reduces the complications of the Korean verb form to just three forms
for each verb.
The quoting endings easily find a place in the three-stems method.
Complete lists of irregular verbs and related regular verbs.
These verbs are presented in a format similar to the English
to write - wrote - written or
to go - went - gone.
A list of more than 200 verb endings.
This list covers all of Modern Korean and all older endings used in Modern
renderings of classical Korean dramas.
Each ending attaches to just one of the three stems of a verb.
Examples of the use of these endings are provided both from everyday speech
and from literature.
The three-stems method is of interest to all students of Korean, regardless
of their level. It sheds light on the Korean verb in a way not usually found
in other text books or course material, making the verb and its structure much
more accessible and manageable.
Additionally, the complete lists of (ir)regular verbs and endings are
of interest to anybody who is involved in studying
or teaching the Korean language in general, and more in particular to the
intermediate and advanced student and teacher of Korean who likes to have a
work of reference at hand or occasionally feels the need for more detailed
Chapters of the book
The full Table of Contents can be found
and the Preface by clicking
Verbs and stems.
In-depth explanation of the three-stems method.
Endings and suffixes.
Application of the three-stems method to endings, suffixes, pseudo-suffixes,
and quoting suffixes.
The consonant stems.
Complete treatment of the regular stems, and the irregular ㄷ-,
ㅂ-, ㅅ-, ㅆ-, and ㅎ-stems, in the light of the
The vowel stems.
Same for the vowel stems.
They differ enough from consonant and vowel stems to deserve a separate
Generated verbs, verbs made from nouns by adding -(이)다.
Listing of the endings and suffixes.
Links each ending to one of the three stem forms.
With examples and many details.
There are a few subjects and lists that for various reasons did not make it
into the book. They can be downloaded here.
Action/descriptive verb pairs.
This is a new section, Section 1.8.2, and replaces the last few lines of
Section 1.8 on page 13, starting at "There are a few verbs that are both
(The Section 1.8.1 header would have come on page 12, right before the text
"The difference between action and descriptive ...")
Verbs in -이다 that look like generated verbs.
This is a new section, Section 6.1.6, and can be added at the end of Section
6.1, after Section 6.1.5.
There is also a small
About the authors
Dick Grune is a retired lecturer of
Computer Science at the
VU University Amsterdam,
and is a coauthor of three text books on the subject.
He has a life-long interest in languages and following his retirement he
turned to studying the forms and structure of the Korean language.
Cho Seongyeon is a native speaker of Korean, has previously worked as
a copywriter for Korean businesses, and is presently a teacher of Korean to
The Korean Verb — Structured and Complete /
Dick Grune & Seongyeon Cho /
... and my name is not Richard ...